Saturday, August 5, 2017


Batik according to the world
Batik is a pictorial fabric that is specially made by writing or putting the night on the cloth, then processing is processed in certain ways that have peculiarities. [1] Batik Indonesia, as a whole of technology, technology, and related motif and cultural development, by UNESCO has been designated as a Humanitarian Heritage for Oral and Nonbendawi Culture since October 2, 2009. [2]

Batik Dedinisi
Batik is a pictorial fabric that is specially made by writing or putting the night on the cloth, then processing is processed in a certain way that has a specificity.

Elements of batik
A.Main motive
The Main Motif is the motif that becomes the core motif of the whole pattern in batik. Usually the main motif becomes the name of the type of batik, for example the principal motif of buketan flowers into the name batik buketan.
B. Field Filling Motif
Field filler motif is a motive beyond the basic motive that fills the field as a whole. The filler motif of the shape is smaller than the principal motif.
C.Isen's motives
Isen motif is a motive that serves to fill (complement) principal motif. Isen motif usually shaped lines and dots. Here are some examples of Isen-isen forms.

The origins of batik
Judging from history, the origin of batik begins since the 17th century AD. At that time, batik style was written-painted on lotar leaves and traditional Javanese house boards.Originally, the pattern or motif of batik is dominated only by images of plants or animals. The craftsmen batik patterns are also still very limited in number. They only make batik style as a form of impingement of art desire and fad done to fill the spare time. Development, the origin of batik began to attract the attention of Majapahit kingdom magnate.Abstract motifs, temple motifs, clouds, wayang beber, and so on began to be developed at that time. The writing of batik was started aimed at different media. White fabrics or light-colored fabrics are the top choice because they are considered more durable and can be used for more utilization.

The popularity of batik cloth increasingly shines.tycoons of the kingdom of Majapahit, Mataram, Demak, and kingdoms afterwards, make batik as a cultural symbol. Especially in the period of Islamic influence, batik motifs in the form of animals abolished.The use of this motive is considered to violate the Islamic Shari'a so it is not allowed except by disguising it using other paintings.

Associated with the manufacture technique, at that time batik is the only technique used.In the process, the coloring is still using natural dyes made from their own using plants such as teak leaves, tall, mengkudu, tilapia, and soga. As for the material of sodanya, the batik of the time using soda ash and mud soil.The use of batik cloth that was previously only limited in the palace environment, gradually began to be developed by the commoners. This makes batik patterns increasingly diverse in accordance with the interests and artistic spirit of the makers.

The origin of batik is also not separated from the development of technology.In the previous batik technique to be the only way that can be done to make batik motifs, after World War I or after increasingly mushrooming modernization, batik printing techniques and batik printing began to be known.Both of these batik techniques are regarded as batik technique that is very efficient and does not take much time, although the quality is considered less have aesthetic value.
Type of batik
According to the technique
Batik tulis is a cloth decorated with texture and batik style by hand.Making this type of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
Batik cap is a cloth decorated with texture and batik style formed with a stamp (usually made of copper). The process of making this type of batik takes about 2-3 days.Batik painting is the process of making batik by direct painting on white cloth.
History of batik technique
The art of coloring the cloth with the coloring blocking technique using the night is one of the ancient art forms. The discovery in Egypt shows that this technique has been known since the 4th century BC, with the discovery of a mummy wrapping cloth that is also coated in the night to form a pattern.In Asia, similar techniques of batik were also applied in China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) and in India and Japan during the Nara Period (645-794). In Africa, techniques such as batik are known by the Yoruba Tribe in Nigeria, as well as the Soninke and Wolof Tribes in Senegal. [4]. In Indonesia, batik is believed to have existed since the time of Majapahit, and became very popular late XVIII century or early XIX century.Batik produced is all batik tulis until the beginning of XX century and new batik is known after World War I or about 1920's. [5]

Although the word "batik" comes from the Javanese language, the presence of batik in Java itself is not recorded. G.P. Rouffaer argues that this batik technique may be introduced from India or Sri Lanka in the 6th or 7th century. [4] On the other hand, J.L.A.Brandes (Dutch archaeologists) and F.A. Sutjipto (Indonesian historian) believes that batik tradition is originally from areas such as Toraja, Flores, Halmahera, and Papua. It should be noted that the area is not an area influenced by Hinduism but is known to have an ancient tradition of making batik. [6]

G.P.Rouffaer also reported that gringsing patterns have been known since the 12th century in Kediri, East Java.He concluded that such a pattern could only be formed by using canting tools, so he argued that canting was found in Java in the surrounding period. [6] Detailed carvings of cloth that resemble batik patterns worn by Prajnaparamita, the goddess of Buddhist wisdom from East Java in the 13th century.Details of clothing displaying vine patterns of botanical plants and elaborate flowers similar to traditional Javanese batik patterns that can be found today.This shows that making a complicated batik pattern that can only be made with canting has been known in Java since the 13th century or even earlier.

The legend in the 17th century Malay literature, Sulalatus Salatin tells Admiral Hang Nadim who was ordered by Sultan Mahmud to sail to India to get 140 pieces of litter cloth with a pattern of 40 kinds of flowers on each page.For not being able to fulfill that order, he made the cloth himself.But unfortunately the ship sank on the way home and only able to bring four sheets to make the Sultan disappointed. [7] By some interpreters, who? Litter was interpreted as batik.

In European literature, this batik technique was first described in the book History of Java (London, 1817) by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles.He had been the British Governor of Java during Napoleon's occupation of the Netherlands. In 1873 a Dutch merchant Van Rijekevorsel gave a piece of batik he had obtained while visiting Indonesia to the Ethnic Museum in Rotterdam and at the beginning of the 19th century that batik began to reach its golden age.When exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, Indonesian batik amazed the public and the artist. [4]

• Since industrialization and globalization, which introduced automation techniques, new types of batik emerged, known as batik cap and batik print, while traditional batik produced by handwriting techniques using canting and night is called batik.At the same time immigrants from Indonesia to Wilayah Persekutuan Malaysia also bring Batik with them.

Now batik has developed in some places outside Java, even to foreign countries.In Indonesia batik has also been developed in Aceh with batik Aceh, Batik Cual in Riau, Batik Papua, Sasirangan batik Kalimantan, and Batik Minahasa.

Year of establishment batik
Batik Topo HP is a company pioneered since 1982 and is one of the first batik company to use the coloring process.In 1998 Indonesia experienced economic crisis so that this business had experienced congestion in because of the increasingly expensive price of staple goods that led to the increasingly expensive batik prices. As a result of sluggish market Batik Topo company tried to rise one of them by following the exhibitions.Because often following the exhibition Mr. Topo many people familiar with the local government so often invited to exhibit around Java. During the exhibition Mr. Topo more often get a loss because many visitors who just come to see the exhibition. Though Mr. Topo many expenses for accommodation to attend the exhibition.Even so thanks to the exhibition of the name Batik Topo HP increasingly known to the public. Then in 2000 Mr. Topo decided to open a show room at his home. Until now the production is only sold at home only, and not open branches.

No comments:

Post a Comment